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UHF VHF Walkie Talkie

WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VHF AND UHF TWO-WAY RADIOS?

UHF or VHF? This week’s Two-Way Radio Tip will examine just exactly what are these radio frequencies, and how they affect the performance of two-way radio communication.

Professional quality two-way radios are an important investment for any business in any industry. Still, knowing what type of professional radio will work best can be a little intimidating for someone who is purchasing radios for the first time. Whether you need a set of four radios for your janitorial staff or 40 for your distribution center, knowing what radio will perform the best while not breaking your budget can be one of the most important equipment decisions you ever make. One of the first areas to consider when choosing the right two-way radio for your industry and situation is knowing what frequencies will provide the best performance for your environment. So, to figure this out, you need to know a little bit more about radio frequencies.

UNDERSTANDING RADIO FREQUENCIES

Did you know that radio frequency waves travel at the speed of light? That’s why radio waves aren’t measured by their speed, but instead they are measured by their oscillation patterns or “waves”. A wavelength is the distance between the tops of two sound waves; the number of waves that pass a certain point for 1 second is called the “frequency”. Measuring radio waves is therefore measured in Hertz and is denoted by the “Hz” abbreviation. One Hertz is equal to one cycle per one second. So, a kilohertz (kHz), is equal to 1000 cycles per second, and a megahertz (MHz), is equal to 1,000,000 cycles per second, or 1000 kHz.

Now why is this information important when discussing UHF and VHF radio frequencies? Simple. Both UHF and VHF have different frequency patterns, and therefore different transmission performance characteristics. Understanding the difference between the two will be incredibly helpful when selecting the correct two-way radio frequency.

VERY HIGH FREQUENCY (VHF)

Very High Frequency (VHF) range is from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. The VHF wavelength is almost 10 times longer and more malleable than that of the UHF frequency. This means that the VHF wavelength is harder to disrupt and therefore able to move around solid objects like people, rocks, and canyons. This wavelength pattern also means it can travel further when nothing is disrupting its oscillating pattern. It shouldn’t be surprising to learn that VHF is exclusively used for the maritime and aviation industries. That’s why any wide-open location that has a clear line-of-sight like in an open field, golf course, or outdoor security detail, will perform better using the VHF band they will be able to transmit much further.

However, one of the downsides of using VHF two-way radios is that they have a smaller number of available frequencies. Therefore, you might have to compete other transmitting devices like wireless microphones, cordless telephones, and even television and radio channels. Another challenge for VHF two-way radios is that they do not travel well when there are obstacles like buildings or heavily forested areas.

ULTRA-HIGH FREQUENCY (UHF)

Professional level UHF two-way radios have a frequency range between 400-512 MHz. These UHF radio waves are much shorter in length and pulsate with much more intensity than VHF. As a result, UHF will not travel as far in the outdoors. However, UHF radios are generally better for indoor use because their shorter and more rapid wavelengths can penetrate physical obstacles like steel and concrete. UHF radios work great for where areas of interference exist like those found in buildings, thickly wooded or hilly areas, and urban outdoor settings.

Another advantage to UHF frequencies is that there is less chance of cross frequency interference with your signal because there is not as much traffic on UHF channels as there is using VHF.

In most cases, we recommend using UHF radios for the best overall coverage. For more information on how to select the right two-way radio system for your industry or professional use, please contact us.

DIGITAL VS ANALOG WALKIE TALKIE

DIGITAL VS ANALOG TWO-WAY RADIOS

When it comes to using two-way radio technology, one of the first things people want to know is, “which is better, analog or digital?” Analog two-way radios have been an important tool for industries like education, construction, manufacturing, and facilities management since the Great Depression. However, more and more companies are transitioning over to digital technology.

But just exactly is the difference between an analog signal and a digital signal? Here is a good article describing the differences between digital and analog two-way radios. The quick summary definition of both is:

  • Analog: Analog signals are continuous or often called “sinusoidal.” All analog systems these days use a continuous wave with the voice signal through frequency modulation (FM). Engineers long-ago figured out how to hard wire this system into a single chip, bringing the cost of production analog two-way radios incredibly affordable. The analog signal is still used in many systems today, but more and more it is being replaced with reliable digital signals.
  • Digital: Digital signals are represented by binary numbers: 0 or 1 where these values can define different discrete voltage values. Any signal that doesn’t quite fit into the scheme is rounded off creating error correction signaling and control bits directly into each packet transmitted. A packet contains an assembly of bits, and algorithmic software makes it possible to understand the differences between voice and background noise, making a clearer and less distorted sound.

What are some advantages of digital?

  • More simultaneous talking paths are possible
  • Better user experience with enhanced features as GPS, emergency features, and even text messaging
  • Lower bandwidth consumption, translates into better battery life
  • Improved flexibility by being able to allow multiple talk groups on a single repeater system
  • Better signal strength and sound clarity through the use of “bit” technology.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DIGITAL AND ANALOG WALKIE-TALKIE?

WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DIGITAL AND ANALOG TWO-WAY RADIOS?

Understanding the difference between digital and analog signals can be a little tricky when deciding which one should be used for a particular job or within a particular industry.

We are going to unpack just exactly what are the differences between analog and digital technology, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of both when it comes to two-way radios.

As in many things electronic, analog was the original technology when two-way radios were introduced into the business world around mid-1930’s. Even today, the primary form of wireless communication technology continues to be analog. However, more and more digital technology is being adopted by large industries that rely on two-way radio technology.

HOW ANALOG WORKS

Both analog and digital radios send signals over a radio channel using a carrier frequency wave, either Very High Frequency (VHF) or Ultra High Frequency (UHF). (Editor’s note: Next week we’ll discuss VHF versus UHF.) In the case of analog radios, the signal is sent via frequency modulation (FM) which encodes a voice signal within the carrier wave. These waves are “sinusoid”, or a continuous wave that has a smooth oscillation. As the voice modulates it alters the frequency of the wave. The receiving radio demodulates this frequency to create an understandable voice message. In this way, analog technology creates an actual representation or “analogy” of the voice. That is really what the term “analog” means.

When it comes to two-way radios, one clear-cut way to hear how analog technology works is to observe how the analog signal degrades as the radio moves further and further away from the transmission point. A typical analog signal will continuously deteriorate as it advances toward its maximum range, until only white noise is heard. Digital on the other hand, will immediately drop off once it reaches the furthest point of transmission.

HOW DIGITAL WORKS

Digital technology is entirely different from analog technology. Instead of encoding voice signals as representations on a carrier frequency wave, the information is translated into a binary format made up of zeros and ones, where each bit represents two distinct amplitudes. Unlike analog signals, digital signals do not send a smooth, continuous signal but rather the signal will be exact and square because it is transmitted via non-continuous block segments. Because of this technology, digital two-way radios have better voice quality, and will not fade away to white noise when they reach their maximum range. Instead the signal will just drop off.

To better understand, the differences between Analog and Digital technology as it relates to two-way radios, we have created the following comparison chart:

ANALOG VERSUS DIGITAL COMPARISON CHART

AnalogDigital
SignalAnalog signals are a continuous, sine wave which can allow the radio to transmit a truer version of the vocal message. However, analog can have a difficult time penetrating physical obstacles.Digital signals pick up processed signals which convert sound waves into mathematical bits. Digital radios can produce as much as 20% more coverage and are better at pushing through walls and concrete.
Carrier WaveProduces a sine wave, which is a smooth, continuously oscillating wave.Produces discontinuous square waves.
PowerAnalog radios draw more energy, which can limit the battery shift life.Digital radios use energy much more efficiently, increasing the lifespan of the battery. Digital radios can also be more powerful, where 1 digital Watt can be as powerful as 4 analog watts.
TechnologyAnalog radios use frequency modulation (FM) waves. These waves produce clear voice transmissions but cannot filter out other noises around the sender. They are also not able to transmit signals past a few miles.Digital radios work by picking up a processed signal which turns sound into patterns of digits (numbers) rather than the radio waves. The digital signal creates more opportunities for feature-rich technology and can generally travel further.
Data TransmissionsAnalog signals can experience noise deterioration during transmission cycle.Digital radios have built-in error correction which reduces background noise, static, etc.
CompatibilityAnalog radios are unable to work with digital two-way radios.Digital two-way radios can be compatible with both digital and analog technology. This allows users to perform a digital migration, where you have digital radios working in analogue mode, until there becomes the time when all radios in the fleet are digital.
CostAnalog radios are relatively inexpensive and easy to use.Digital radios offer more capabilities so can be more expensive, but like most electronics the digital parts get cheaper and more efficient year after year.
FutureWhile analog two-way radios have been a mainstay for years, they have all but exhausted their possibilities as far as features. Manufacturers are no longer making analog only radios.Digital radios will slowly take over the radio communication market because it provides many additional features, and better coverage.

Explosion-proof Walkie-Talkie

The difference between explosion-proof walkie-talkie and non-explosion-proof walkie-talkie
Explosion-proof walkie-talkies refer to walkie-talkies that can work in explosive gas environments. Unlike civilian walkie-talkies, explosion-proof walkie-talkies do not refer to walkie-talkies that can withstand explosions by themselves, but are walkie-talkies that can work in explosive gas environments.
It is suitable for industries with harsh environment and dangerous combustible gas or dust, such as petrochemical, coal, chemical, thermal power, food processing and other industries. The walkie-talkie relies on electromagnetic waves to transmit signals, and the transmission of electromagnetic waves relies on the continuous conversion of electric and magnetic fields. In this conversion process, it is easy to generate electric sparks. However, the explosion-proof walkie-talkie is shielded where sparks may be generated during the conversion process due to the special treatment of its wiring.
Explosion-proof walkie-talkies are popular in special operations. This phenomenon promotes the continuous development of explosion-proof walkie-talkies and adapts to different harsh environments. The explosion-proof walkie-talkies are divided into grades, sections and groups from the level of explosion-proof walkie-talkies.

The general level is represented by Roman numerals, representing explosiveness. Level I represents a mixture of volatile gases such as gasoline (and other petroleum oil and gas products) and air; Level II represents a mixture of dust and air; Level III represents suspended particles in the air. mixture. Levels from one to three represent different degrees of explosion, which decrease in sequence.

The classification of sections is section 1 and section 2: section 1 refers to the place where there is an explosive gas environment during normal operation, and section 2 refers to the place where there is explosive gas during abnormal operation or equipment failure. The grade distribution of the group is A——G7 group A group is acetylene gas, B group is hydrogen, C group is ethylene, ether, etc., D group is propane, acetone, ammonia, benzene, butyl, gasoline, cyclopropane Gas, natural gas, etc. are all waste gas after petroleum distillation, E-G represents dust, E group is mostly metal dust, F group is carbon dust, and G group is grain dust. And its explosion-proof degree is also declining.
The appearance of explosion-proof walkie-talkies is no different from that of ordinary walkie-talkies, but the materials and physical characteristics used are very different from those of ordinary models.
1: Class (explosive)
Class I: Volatile gasoline (and other petroleum oil and gas products)/air mixture
Class II: Dust/air mixture
Class III: Suspended solids/air mixture
2: Division
Section 1: Places where there is an explosive gas environment during normal operation;
Section 2: Places where explosive gas exists during abnormal operation or equipment failure.
3: Group
Group A: Acetylene gas
Group B: Hydrogen
Group C: Ethylene, ether, etc.
Group D: Propane (liquefied petroleum gas), acetone, ammonia, benzene, butyl, gasoline, cyclopropane, natural gas, etc.
Group E: Metal dust
Group F: Charcoal Dust
Group G: Grain dust

Baofeng UV-5R,Civil walkie-talkie classic

Handheld walkie-talkie is referred to as the hand platform. Before we started, we first popularized three common senses: The first question: What is the walkie-talkie? Simply put, it is a radio/radio transceiver that can talk to each other, allowing you to make short-distance wireless calls without using a mobile phone, without relying on the carrier’s base station, and without paying for calls. The second question: Is there a radiation on the walkie-talkie? Strictly speaking, any electronic device has radiation. In the case of occasional use for several hours, the impact of the radio on the human body within 5W of civilian use is negligible.

Let’s cut into the topic, let’s talk about this model first, Baofeng UV-5R, Baofeng everyone is very familiar with the common people-friendly brand. UV is a description of U and V dual bands. 5 is basically 1-4W power, R is the representation of this model (mainly the outer casing). The difference between UV is frequency, as listed below:

1, Wireless frequency band

Both U segment and V segment are amateur radio bands, U segment is very high frequency band, center frequency is 145MHz, frequency range is between 144.000 and 145.800MHz; V segment is high frequency band, center frequency is 435MHz, frequency range is divided into two segments: 430.000 to 435.000 and 438.000 to 440.000 MHz.

2, Transmitter transmission

The U-segment wireless Medori uses the phase-locked loop technology to obtain high frequency, and the transmitter frequency is basically adjustable. The V-segment wireless wheat transmitter mainly uses several stages of frequency multiplier circuits to obtain high frequency, and the transmitter frequency is fixed.

3, Receiver transmission

The U-band wireless receivers on the market are mostly adjustable frequencies, while the V-segment wireless receivers are basically fixed frequency points. The U-segment receiver uses a small or built-in antenna, and the V-segment receiver has a longer antenna.

4, Anti-interference strength

The U-band wireless wheat frequency has a wide radiation range and can easily avoid interference signals by adjusting the transmitter and receiver frequencies. The V-segment wireless wheat frequency radiation range is narrow, and the fixed frequency point is easily interfered.

5, Signal transmission

The U-segment wireless wheat signal reflects more on metal objects, has greater attenuation on the human body, and has large transmission loss. The V-segment wireless wheat signal has small reflection on metal objects, can be diffracted, can penetrate the human body, and has low transmission loss; in short, The frequency of the U segment is higher than that of the V segment, and the higher the frequency, the greater the loss while transmitting. In normal use, the V-band has a narrow frequency range (180MHZ–280MHZ), so there will be interference between 6 and more, and the U-band range is wider (500MHZ–900MH), so there will be more than 60 interferences. . In addition to the small loading data, the V-band sound is worse than the U-segment.

Go back to the topic and talk about the machine itself. From the outside, there is nothing special, with a LCD screen, there are numeric keys and menu keys, you can plug in the headphones, use lithium batteries, the antenna can be removed, the size of the body can be held with one hand, mainly these.

The appearance is square, there are numeric buttons, quite like a mobile phone
On the right is the microphone and headphone jack
Use lithium battery, the battery board can be removed
The middle big black key is PPT button
The top button is the switch and volume, and there is a small white light in the middle.

The battery is 7.4V, 1800 mAh
Here is Frequency band

Here’s a quick description of how to use it:

First turn the knob switch on the top of the handtable, the screen lights up, and the two hand stations can talk at the same frequency. Press and hold the left ptt button during the call, the sending party desk lights up red, and the receiver lights up in blue. After the party finishes, release the ptt button, and then you can receive the other party’s call. Each time only one party sends a voice, the two parties cannot speak at the same time.

Send on the left and receive on the right
The reverse the same, sent on the right, received on the left
The bottom left button on the left side can turn on the top small light, press once the small light is always on, press the small light twice
The orange key above the side can switch between the intercom and radio modes, and the radio can listen to FM: 65-108MHz
Here is the headset and the microphone jack
The plugs are not the same size, so don’t worry about plugging in the wrong one.
On the upper left is the PTT dialog button on the headphone cord, and on the lower right is the headphone sound and the microphone module. The sound is transmitted to the ear through the extended air duct.
Press and hold the headset ptt button, and the handset’s own ptt button function is consistent, you can launch the voice

The transparent tube is the air tube, and the sound is finally transmitted to the ear here.
The antenna is also a universal SMA interface
The hand platform is placed on the base like this. The base is automatically charged and full of self-stop. In addition, the machine basically does not run after the machine is turned off. I was charged last year or so, and the power is still full today. If you don’t have to damage the battery for a long time, you can occasionally listen to the radio and then recharge it.
Finally, show everyone the weight, 174 grams

Otherise, Baofeng UV5R has a lot of gameplay, such as writing frequency, lengthening the antenna, welcome to communicate with each other. Ordinary use, it seems that the use of scenes is not much, occasionally riding a motorcycle or road car use and small partners to use, the approximate straight distance of the call is 10 km flat, 5 km in the urban area, standing on the top of the 20-story The straight line distance is about 15 kilometers. It will be amazing for the first time. The small hand station can talk so far and the sound is very clear.

Handling of common problems with walkie-talkies

  1. Can’t talk to other group members in the group?

  First confirm that the frequency and dumb audio signaling you are using are the same as the other members in the group; if there are no problems, please confirm whether other members in the group are in the service area

2. What is the voice of other members in the channel?

   Please change the sub-audio signaling, and you must change the signaling of all the intercoms in the group, or apply to change the frequency.

3. How long does it take to use the battery after it is properly charged?

   The battery life has expired, please update the battery. (The number of charge and discharge cycles for normal use of nickel-metal hydride batteries is generally 500, and for lithium batteries is 1000)

4.Does the walkie-talkie not scan?

   When the walkie-talkie is programmed, the channel is not scanned (professional setting) or the scanning function of the whole machine is turned off.

5. Is the full-band noise after programming?

   When the walkie-talkie is programmed, the squelch is all turned on. Non-professionals recommend not adjusting the function parameters.

6.What is the regular beeping sound after programming?

   The walkie-talkie programming error. The frequency programmed is outside the frequency range specified by the radio or the selected model and machine are not paid.

7. Is there no sound after using the headphones for a while?

   The earphone socket of the walkie-talkie is broken, or the earphone is broken. Send to the repair station for repair.

8. Is the call distance getting closer and the sensitivity is poor?

   Check if the antenna is intact and the antenna base is loose or damaged (please send it to the repair station for repair). If there is still no effect after replacing the antenna, the initial judgment is the internal quality problem of the machine, and it is sent to the repair station for maintenance.

9.The intercom can receive the speech of the other party but cannot transmit it.

   Check the PTT button. Send to the repair station for repair.

10. can not boot or often power down?

   Check if the walkie-talkie battery contacts are deformed or broken.


HYT walkie-talkie

11. Is there a display or error display on the walkie-talkie with LCD?

   If the walkie-talkie is dropped or improperly used, the LCD may be damaged or the conductive rubber may be in poor contact (send to the repair station for repair).

12.Does the other party receive a small voice or a voice interrupt?

   Check if the small hole in the microphone of the walkie-talkie is blocked (please send it to the repair station for repair).

13.Is the reception intermittent and accompanied by loud noise?

   The limit communication distance to the walkie-talkie or the blockage of tall buildings in the basement (please send the repair station for repair).

14.How to deal with the machine after entering the water?

   Immediately after the machine enters the water, the battery should be unplugged, the water should be forced out, blown dry in a dry and ventilated place, and sent to the repair station for repair in the shortest time.


HYT relay station

Treatment Case 1: How to repair the water inlet?

   First disassemble the machine, disassemble all external parts one by one (such as buttons, PTT glue, light guide column, etc.), carefully clean the circuit board with absolute alcohol or special wash water, dry it, and clean the circuit with small tools. Stains on the board; then soaked in anhydrous alcohol, conditionally cleaned with an ultrasonic cleaner; then removed with a hair dryer (note that the temperature is not too high), and check the board for damage, if there is a wire break To connect with a thin enameled wire, use a three-meter to measure the resistance of the positive and negative terminals of the power supply. Do not short circuit or open circuit (power on, view current, normal 40MA or so, no less than 1000mA when transmitting); Finally, check the antenna port Whether it is dirty, if it is dirty, clean it up, and if there are other faults, follow the routine maintenance. Water inlets with severe corrosion to the circuit are generally not repairable, so the machine should be disposed of in time after entering the water.

TYT IP-79 Unlimited Distance Analog Dual Mode Network Radio

Dual PTT Design For Network And Analog
1) 4 working mode optional
2) Unlimited distance communicate
3) Singal free switch between network and analog
4) Singal cross band from network to analog
5) Update files on the air without programming cable
6) GPS & Trace Replay
7) 1-32g recording storage & Replay

Dual mode repeater make analog achieve Global communication
Increase the communication distance and expand the coverage, which can be used as a small transfer station.
When there is a signal, you can expend the analog achieve Global communication


TYT IP-79 Network & Analog Dual Mode Combined Radio

Single call Group call / Free Switch calling


TYT IP-79 Network & Analog Dual Mode Combined Radio

Dual PTT key design both network and analog, easy and convenience operater

TYT IP-79 Network & Analog Dual Mode Combined Radio

Quite listening Loud volume Nice Voice
High quality Speaker/Microphone


TYT IP-79 Network & Analog Dual Mode Combined Radio

Icom IC-718 HF All Band Amateur Base Transceiver 100 Watts

The HF bands allow you to communicate over long distances covering many km even to the other side of the world. With the superior performance found in the IC-718 such as wide dvnamic range, high C/N ratio, and full duty operation you will find making these contacts easy.

Experience the combination of the latest RF and digital technology, along with the size and simplified operation. You will see the IC-718 will be the most practical rig you will ever own.

The IC-718 has a speaker mounted on the front panel. With the speaker facing the operator, audio sounds can be clearly heard without impediment during operation. It is no longer necessary to manually increase the volume to try and capture audio sounds.

The IC-718 has 0.03-29.999999 MHz* general coverage receive capability. A 4-element system is employed for the 1st receive mixer, providing superior receive IMD, especially from in-band near-by interfering signals. A well-designed double-conversion system to help minimize image and spurious responses for better signal fidelity, is also built-in. A newly designed PLL circuit has been adopted to improve C/N ratio characteristics. The combination of the 4-element system mixer and new PLL circuit allows superior basic performance as that of a commercial grade transceiver. *Guaranteed range: 0.5-29.999999 MHz

TYT MD-2017 Dual Band DMR IP67 Waterproof Digital Two Way Radio

TYT MD-2017 Dual Band DMR IP67 Waterproof Digital Two Way Radio

The TYT MD-2017 operates in analog and digital modes on 400-480MHz frequencies on UHF and 136-174MHz VHF at up to 5 watts of power. It uses Time-Division Multiple-Access (TDMA) digital technology to double the number of users on a single 12.5kHz channel.

The MD-2017 boasts 3000 channels, 10000 contacts, built-in CTCSS/DCS (analog mode only), single call, group call and all call, remote kill/stun/activate, transmit interrupt, VOX, and lone worker function. It is compatible with MOTOTRBO™ Tier I and II, is firmware upgradeable and is IP67 waterproof.

The TYT MD-2017 is also equipped with the same large color LCD display found on other models in the MD series. It also has the traditional keypad found on the other digital radios, and there are programmable side keys. However, the MD-2017 adds two additional programmable keys, marked P1 and P2.

The MD-2017 also has a trackball, and it’s embedded front and center. This makes the MD-2017 very different indeed.

The Tytera MD-2017 dual band digital radio uses Digital Mobile Radio (DMR) Tier 2 Standard protocol. It is compatible with the popular MOTO TRBO series Tier I and II using standard encryption, as well as other makes and models of DMR supported radios. It is also compatible with any existing analog two-way radio operating on the supported UHF and VHF frequencies for easy migration to digital technology.

Includes one Tytera MD-2017 dual band digital mobile two way radio, dual band antenna, belt clip, AC charger, 2200mAh lithium-ion rechargeable battery, owner’s manual and one year manufacturer warranty.

Note: The MD-2017 is dust and waterproof only when the accessory port is properly covered and sealed. The radio is not fully waterproof when a headset or other accessory is connected.

TYT MD-2017 Features

 GPS function

3000 Channels

 400-480MHz UHF Frequencies

 136-174MHz VHF Frequencies

 Built-in CTCSS/DCS (Analog Mode)

 5W/1W Output Power

 Repeater Capable

 Uses Li-ion Rechargeable Battery Packs

 Rechargeable Li-ion Battery Pack Included

 Includes Charger

 Emergency Alarm

 VOX

 Encryption (Digital Mode Only)

 Private Call/Group Call/All Call

 Cloning Capable

 Text Messaging

 Lone Worker Mode

 LED Status Light

 Color LCD Display

 Lighted DTMF Keypad and Trackball

 Hi/Low Power Selectable

 Signal Strength Indicator

 Battery Meter

 Low Battery Alert

 Battery Saver

 Programmable Multifunction Keys

 PC Programmable (Optional Software and Cable Required)

 Timeout Timer

 Keypad Lock

 Audible Button Beeps

 Clock

 Drop-In Charge Capable

 IP67 Waterproof

 Submersible

 Audio Accessory Connector

 DMR

 Stun/Kill/Activate

 One Year Manufacturer Warranty